In recent years, Uganda has developed into a stabilizing force in East Africa. The country plays a positive role in regional peace initiatives, for example in Southern Sudan and Somalia, and is actively engaged in peace, security and regional cooperation. The economic and social situation is sound despite major challenges such as widespread corruption and high population growth. The Ugandan Government's policy is development-oriented. Over the past two decades, significant success has been achieved in reducing poverty. Nevertheless, Uganda remains one of the least developed countries in the world (LDC).
Uganda has become the main refugee receiving country in Africa: Around 1.36 million people have sought protection there, more than 850,000 of them from Southern Sudan (as of October/November 2019). Uganda's government pursues a very generous refugee policy that is recognised worldwide as exemplary. In the meantime, however, this policy has reached its limits,
The population size is estimated at 44 million with a population growth of 3.3 percent. Due to the high birth rate, the population average is young: almost half of the inhabitants are under 15 years of age - an immense challenge for the country. Many development successes are neutralized by the large population growth. Every year hundreds of thousands of young Ugandans flock to the labour market, and unemployment is high.
The official languages are English and Swahili, although the latter is in fact not spoken by anyone. School lessons are in English from the first grade onwards. The main local languages include Luganda, Luo, Iteso, Lusuga and Rwanyankole. Over 80 percent of the population is Christian; the proportion of Muslims is just under 14 percent.
Head of state since 1986 is Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, the last inauguration was on 12.05.2016. The form of government is a presidential government, the governing party is the National Resistance Movement (NRM).
Sources: Homepage of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development; country database of the German Foundation for World Population; homepage of the Federal Foreign Office.
Status: January 2020